The knowledge of the movement of stars and planets is one of the different types of Spiritual Power or siddhis outlined in the Vibhuti Pada (Book III) of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. We all know that astronomical events have been extremely significant for many cultures all over the world, and the Indians, Chinese, and Mayans even developed elaborate systems for predicting worldly events from their celestial observations, but why is this so?
The explanation is provided in my article about the Law of Correspondence, but here’s a summary:
Everything in the Universe is simultaneously a whole and a part; comparable cycles and patterns can be observed from the largest clusters of galaxies down to the smallest unit of matter, the atom. It is the understanding of the fundamental laws that govern these manifestations of energy that enables us to acquire knowledge of how nature works. Scientists make use of the senses and the faculty of the intellect to observe the Universe and everything in it. This allows them to acquire knowledge of fundamental laws in the physical realm. People in various spiritual and mystical schools, however, use their inner senses and the intuitive faculty to acquire knowledge of fundamental laws not only in the material world, but in the mental and spiritual realms as well.
So the next question to ask is, "How exactly can we gain understanding of these fundamental laws?"
The answer is stated in Sutra 29 of the Vibhuti Pada.
"(By performing Samyama) on the pole-star knowledge of their movements."
— I.K. Taimni, The Science Of Yoga
"Focusing with perfect discipline on the polestar yields insight about their movements."
— Chip Hartranft, The Yoga-Sûtra of Patañjali
"By perfectly concentrated Meditation on the fixed pole-star comes a knowledge of the motions of the stars."
— Charles Johnston, The Yoga Sutras Of Patanjali: The Book of the Spiritual Man
According to the writings in Vishnu Purana and Bhagavata Purana, there was a young devotee of Vishnu (a Hindu deity) who was blessed with eternal existence as the pole star. The young devotee’s name was Dhruva. Devotees of the Lord Vishnu may spontaneously acquire this spiritual power through years of performing Bhakti yoga, but if you’re not into worshipping deities, then knowledge of the movement of stars and planets can be attained by performing Samyama Meditation on the Pole star. Gazing steadily on the vision of a single point or object, preferably a luminous one, is called Trataka (see Visualization Technique).
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